Published article

Questioning the dichotomy: A Latent profile analysis of ecological management practices in Swedish agriculture, Journal of Environmental Management 300: 113770

Authors: Lisa Höglind  Helena Hanson  Gordana Manevska-Tasevska 

Currently, farmers who are not certified according to organic certification schemes are considered to be conventional farmers. Discussions in the farming sector reveal a view that the current organic classification system is too narrow and does not account for the full heterogeneity of the ecological practices that are prevalent in the agricultural sector. The failure to recognise practices within conventional farming, such as low-input farming or conservation agriculture, may therefore undermine efforts to adopt ecological practices. This study investigates heterogeneity in farmer uptake of management practices using factor analysis for dimension reduction and Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) for identification of farmer segments. The findings reveal four farmer profiles with a varying degree of use of chemicals and ecological, alternative, or mixed management approaches. Using seemingly unrelated regression, we find that being certified according to the Swedish organic certification scheme KRAV, or the EU organic label, does not have an impact on a farmer's profile, suggesting that the data do not support the organic/conventional dichotomy. Instead, age, farming income and geographical location are to a greater degree the key factors in determining the larger farmer profile compared with the smaller, more diversified farmer profiles.


Lisa Höglind

Helena Hanson

Gordana Manevska-Tasevska