This study sought to explore how farmers' knowledge attributes influence the technical efficiency of their farms. In addition, farm efficiency was compared to the actual Macedonian Rural Development Programme (RDP) (2007–2013) and instruments considered to improve Macedonian education potential were evaluated. The three-year (2006–2008) panel data set on Macedonian grape-producing family farms were analysed, using a parametric Stochastic Frontier approach. The results suggest that farmers' knowledge attributes have the potential to influence farm economic performance. Non-formal knowledge sources appeared to be key to achieving higher technical efficiency. Within the instruments used for strengthening the knowledge potential of Macedonian farmers, supporting non-formal education and young farmers' enrolment in agricultural production should remain priorities. As the study relates to specific RDP instruments, it is of practical importance for policy-makers and knowledge-providing systems.